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Brain Anatomy

San Francisco Bay Area TBI Lawyer

For over thirty years, the attorneys at Abramson Smith Waldsmith LLP have represented victims of serious personal injuries, including traumatic brain injuries. We understand the challenges that victims, their families, and their friends, experience as a result of these injuries.  We do what is necessary to hold the negligent and responsible parties accountable. We also take great steps to make sure our clients recover full and fair compensation for traumatic brain injuries. Our results reflect our accomplishments.

The brain weighs about three pounds (1300-1400 grams), or about 2% of a person’s body weight. The brain has six major regions, each with special functions. The six regions of the brain are:

The side of the brain that is affected from the injury is also important because the functions of the two sides, or “hemispheres,” are not identical despite looking alike. Movement and sensation on one side of the body are controlled by the opposite side of the brain. However, memory requires a coordination of several areas and both sides of the brain.

Generally, the left side of the brain controls speech, writing, interpreting language and mathematical concepts, and reasoning. The right side of the brain is the center of art, and is very active when listing to music, drawing, painting, or daydreaming.

Neuropsychological tests can measure the extent and severity of cognitive neurological dysfunction. Neuropsychological tests can localize dysfunction to specific areas of the brain.

The human brain is part of the Central Nervous System, and acts like a computer for your body. The brain is protected by the skull and three layers of membranes, or meninges.


The skull, which is formed by 28 different bones, has two regions: the cranial and the facial. The cranial area of the skull, also known as the cranium, provides a protective layer of bone covering the brain. The facial regions are the bones that support the functions of the face.


The meninges consist of three layers: the pia mater, the arachnoid mater, and the dura mater. The acronym for these three layers is “PAD” and in a sense help serve to pad the brain.

Pia Mater

The pia mater is a very thin and delicate membrane that adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord. Blood vessels pass through the pia mater to the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid Mater

The arachnoid mater is a thin, transparent membrane that serves as the middle element of the meninges and provides a cushioning effect for the central nervous system. Its name is based on its spider web appearance of fibrous tissue. Unlike the pia mater, the arachnoid mater is loosely fitting. The subarachnoid space is the space between the arachnoid and the pia mater, which is filled with spinal fluid.

Dura Mater

The dura mater is a fibrous and durable membrane that is the thickest and outer portion of the meninges. The dura mater is attached to the skull and contains larger blood vessels that feed the capillaries in the pia mater and supports the veins that carry blood from the brain to the heart.

At Abramson Smith Waldsmith LLP in San Francisco, California, we understand the challenges faced by victims of a brain injury and the long-term consequences of these injuries. We have the skill, experience, and results necessary to represent victims of brain injuries and closed head injuries.

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For more information or to schedule an appointment with an experienced personal injury lawyer, please contact us.